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Most motor vehicle lawsuits are brought under the legal principle of negligence which is defined as "the failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonably prudent person would have exercised in a similar situation.” As HKQ Law Attorney Don Ligorio explains, “in Pennsylvania the individual initiating a negligence claim – the plaintiff – must establish four elements”. Those elements are:

(1) a duty of care

(2) a failure to perform that duty

(3) a factual cause of the injury

(4) an actual loss or injury

Duty of care is a legal obligation to act toward others and the public with the “watchfulness, attention, caution and prudence that a reasonable person in the same circumstances would use”. A defendant’s duty is breached by failure to exercise reasonable care in fulfilling that duty.

A wrongful act is considered the factual cause of an injury where the injury would not have occurred without the act. A plaintiff in a personal injury case must prove a legally recognized harm in the form of injury to a person.


A driver has a duty of using care to avoid injuring anyone encountered while driving, including passengers, pedestrians and other motorists. The vehicle must be operated with reasonable care at all times, taking into consideration factors such as weather, visibility and traffic conditions.

Some examples of a driver’s breach of duty include:

  • Failing to obey traffic laws. Certain violations may constitute negligence per se, which means that the plaintiff need not establish that the defendant had a duty to act a certain way and breached that duty. The traffic violation itself is considered to be negligent because it broke a law that was intended to protect people from harm.
  • Failing to use the vehicle’s equipment properly. (e.g., not using lights when required, not dimming high beams, not signaling when turning)
  • Failing to maintain critical car components in working order. (These components include brakes, steering, lights)
  • Failing to be vigilant. A driver who is not alert may fail to keep a proper lookout to unexpected occurrences on the road.
  • Distracted driving. (e.g., texting/sending emails, taking a picture or “selfie”, eating, applying makeup, adjusting stereo or GPS settings)
  • Drowsy driving. Posing a threat to other drivers on the road, this potential hazard is observed more frequently among long-distance drivers, late night/early morning shift workers and shift workers who work in excess of 50 hours per week.
  • Driving under the influence. Accidents caused by a driver under the influence may involve additional defendants. Under Pennsylvania’s dram shop law, establishments licensed by the Commonwealth to sell alcohol may be held civilly liable for injuries caused to third parties by a patron whom they have served alcohol to when that patron was “visibly intoxicated”. Pennsylvania also imposes civil liability for “social hosts” who “knowingly furnished" alcohol to those underage, if the underage individual then causes harm to a third party. Pennsylvania courts interpret “knowingly” broadly, so it is not necessary that the host hands a drink to the underage individual. Participating in planning the party or “substantially aiding” the underage drinking would give rise to liability. Pennsylvania’s social host law does not recognize claims involving intoxicated adults, even if the adult was provided with alcohol while “visibly intoxicated.”

Recovering Damages

In legal parlance, the word damages refers to “monetary compensation which may be recovered in the courts by any person who has suffered loss, detriment or injury”. In a personal injury lawsuit, compensation can be sought for economic and non-economic damages. Economic damages compensate for actual costs, such as medical expenses and lost wages due to time off for work. Non-economic damages cover intangible costs such as pain and suffering. Pennsylvania also allows an injured party to make a claim for punitive damages, damages exceeding simple compensation and awarded to punish the defendant in cases of reckless indifference or disregard. Knowingly violating laws, driving under the influence, texting while driving, extreme drowsiness and reckless indifference are examples of driving while knowing you are unfit to drive, and may give rise to a claim for punitive damages.

If you or a loved one has been seriously injured in a motor vehicle accident caused by someone else’s negligence, call (800) 760-1529 to speak with one of HKQ Law’s personal injury attorneys. No one will work harder for you.

About HKQ Law

Hourigan, Kluger & Quinn is considered one of the top civil litigation and commercial law firms that has had the privilege of representing more families in the courtroom than any other NEPA firm. The attorneys at HKQ Law have been honored as Super Lawyers, Best Lawyers, Best Law Firms by US News and World Report, and have received the AV Preeminent Rating by Martindale-Hubbel. HKQ Law was recently recognized for one of the top 20 Verdicts in Pennsylvania.

The firm’s Personal Injury Team, led by Attorney Joe Quinn, Jr., has won some of the largest verdicts and settlements in the region's history. The Personal Injury Team focuses on a wide array of personal injury claims and civil litigation, including medical malpractice, auto and truck accidents, aviation accidents, unsafe vehicles, dangerous or defective products, workplace injuries (worker's compensation), construction site accidents, claim denials by insurance companies, dangerous drugs, defective children's products, nursing home abuse and neglect, and falls due to unsafe conditions (slip and fall).

Attorney Joseph A Quinn, Jr. is one of only 100 attorneys in the United States (and one of only three in Pennsylvania) honored with membership in the Inner Circle of Trial Advocates, and one of only 500 attorneys worldwide chosen to be a Fellow of the International Academy of Trial Lawyers. He has been a Pennsylvania Super Lawyer every year since the program began and has been listed in The Best Lawyers in America every year since the publication was established in 1987. Best Lawyers also named him top personal injury attorney for Northeastern Pennsylvania and the Lehigh Valley. In addition, Best Lawyers, in conjunction with U.S. News & World Report, has designated HKQ a Tier 1 Best Law Firm across multiple categories in Northeastern Pennsylvania and the Lehigh Valley.

Since the inception of the firm, the Commercial / Corporate Team led by Attorney Allan Kluger has provided comprehensive, integrated legal services to many of Northeastern and Eastern Pennsylvania's largest corporations, businesses, banks, non-profits and institutions, handling matters involving labor and employment, wills, trusts and estate planning, estate administration, elder law, commercial transactions, residential and commercial real estate, zoning, land use and development, telecommunications, mediations and arbitrations, commercial litigation, title insurance, business planning and business succession, corporate/business structuring, employment discrimination law for employers, banking, creditor’s rights, finance, lender liability defense, covenants not to compete, construction law, mergers and acquisitions and other business matters.

Additional information can be found at or by calling (800) 760-1529.



As Hourigan, Kluger and Quinn addresses the concerns raised by COVID-19, the health and safety of our clients, employees and friends of the firm remain our top priority.

These are very difficult and scary times and we hope that you and your loved ones are safe and symptom free. We recognize that so many of you are understandably anxious about your health, the economic impact of this pandemic and all of the consequences of social isolation.

We also recognize that many of you are anxious about how the coronavirus is impacting the Court systems, our firm and your cases. Although all of our offices are closed, our firm has remained fully operational and we have initiated procedures that allow all of our attorneys and staff to work remotely from their homes. Each of us and our staff will respond to any emails and calls about your cases as quickly as possible.

Our Federal and State Courts have instituted significant changes in their calendars as a result of the coronavirus. Although most courthouses are closed to the public, and Hearings and Trials will be delayed for some time, there are matters that can proceed telephonically and by video. Despite these changes in the Court calendars, we are working diligently on your cases and are determined to do whatever we possibly can to assure an early and just recovery for you and your loved ones. Even under these difficult circumstances, we believe that "Nobody will work harder for you than we will."

With regard to new potential clients, we are not in a position to have an in-person new client meeting, but we will be conducting these initial meetings via phone. New potential clients should call us for a free telephone consultation at (570) 287-3000.


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