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After trending upward for years, charge filings for job discrimination related to disability reached an all-time high two years ago. Which means an increasing number of employers can be facing substantial financial consequences for non-compliance. So how does an employer avoid running afoul of anti-discrimination laws? It’s essential to be familiar with the pertinent laws. 

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Enacted in 1990 and amended in 2008, the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, State and local government, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation and telecommunications. Workplace discrimination is covered by ADA’s Title 1, which requires employers with 15 or more employees to provide qualified individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to benefit from the full range of employment-related opportunities available to others. Title 1 applies to discrimination in recruitment, hiring, promotions, training, pay, social activities and other privileges of employment, as well as termination.

HKQ Law Attorney Richard M. Goldberg notes that it’s important for employers to know that “while the Americans with Disabilities Act does not cover independent contractors, the Pennsylvania Human Relations Act (PHRA) does.” PHRA also applies to employers with as few as four employees.

Qualified individuals

The ADA protects individuals who: (1) have a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, (2) have a record of such an impairment, or (3) are regarded as having such an impairment.

A non-exhaustive list of major life activities includes caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping, walking, standing, sitting, reaching, lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, communicating, interacting with others and working. Major life activities also include the operation of major bodily functions. Covered impairments include but are not limited to deafness, blindness, intellectual disability, partially or completely missing limbs, mobility impairments requiring use of a wheelchair, autism, cancer, cerebral palsy, diabetes, epilepsy, HIV infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. Pregnancy is not a disability under the ADA. However, certain impairments resulting from pregnancy ( e.g., gestational diabetes), may be considered a disability if they substantially limit a major life activity.

The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered. Other mental or physical conditions also may be considered disabilities depending on what the individual's symptoms would be without mitigating measures such as medication, prosthetic limbs, mobility devices, oxygen therapy, physical therapy, psychotherapy and behavioral therapy. An impairment that is episodic or in remission meets the definition of disability if it would substantially limit a major life activity when active. 

In addition to protecting qualified applicants and employees with disabilities from employment discrimination, one ADA provision protects applicants and employees from discrimination based on their relationship or association with an individual with a disability, whether or not the applicant or employee has a disability. The “association provision” was included in the ADA  to prevent employers from taking adverse actions based on unfounded stereotypes and assumptions about individuals who associate with people who have disabilities. For example, under the provision, it would be unlawful to refuse to hire an individual who has a child with a disability based on an assumption that the applicant may be away from work excessively.

Reasonable accommodations

Qualified applicants and employees with disabilities are entitled to “reasonable accommodations.” A reasonable accommodation is any work-related modification that will permit an employee or prospective employee with a disability to participate in the job application process, to perform the essential functions of a job, or to partake in the same benefits and privileges of employment enjoyed by employees without disabilities. Examples of reasonable accommodation include making existing facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by an individual with a disability; restructuring a job; modifying work schedules; acquiring or modifying equipment; providing qualified readers or interpreters; or modifying examinations, training, or other programs. Some accommodations may not be considered reasonable as they would cause an undue hardship on the business by posing significant difficulty or expense. 

Individuals must meet either the “actual” or “record of” definitions of disability to be eligible for a reasonable accommodation. Those only meeting the “regarded as” definition are not entitled to receive reasonable accommodation. Nor are people covered by the “association provision”.

Complexity and the cost of non-compliance

As you can see, the ADA is a complicated law. Its complexity is illustrated in workplace issues involving drugs and alcohol. An employer has the absolute right to fire an employee for using either substance on the job. However, the ADA does provide protection for drug addicts and alcoholics provided these individuals meet certain conditions.

It’s not just intentional disregard of the ADA that can create serious problems for employers. Misinterpretation of the law can be a costly mistake. Violating the ADA (and the PHRC) can result in time spent defending claims, bad publicity, the expense of litigation, and substantial damages. In 2006, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) charged FedEx with failure to provide a reasonable accommodation to a deaf employee. A federal jury found FedEx liable for punitive damages in the amount of $100,000.00 for failure to accommodate the employee as well as compensatory damages of $8,000 for the loss of the accommodation.

Fortunately, HKQ Law can assist you with compliance for all facets of ADA Title I and PHRA, from interview (and questions to avoid) to legal terminations. To speak with an Employment Law Attorney, call (800) 760-1529.

About HKQ Law

Hourigan, Kluger & Quinn is considered one of the top civil litigation and commercial law firms that has had the privilege of representing more families in the courtroom than any other NEPA firm. The attorneys at HKQ Law have been honored as Super Lawyers, Best Lawyers, Best Law Firms by US News and World Report, and have received the AV Preeminent Rating by Martindale-Hubbel. HKQ Law was recently recognized for one of the top 20 Verdicts in Pennsylvania.

The firm’s Personal Injury Team, led by Attorney Joe Quinn, Jr., has won some of the largest verdicts and settlements in the region's history. The Personal Injury Team focuses on a wide array of personal injury claims and civil litigation, including medical malpractice, auto and truck accidents, aviation accidents, unsafe vehicles, dangerous or defective products, workplace injuries (worker's compensation), construction site accidents, claim denials by insurance companies, dangerous drugs, defective children's products, nursing home abuse and neglect, and falls due to unsafe conditions (slip and fall).

Attorney Joseph A Quinn, Jr. is one of only 100 attorneys in the United States (and one of only three in Pennsylvania) honored with membership in the Inner Circle of Trial Advocates, and one of only 500 attorneys worldwide chosen to be a Fellow of the International Academy of Trial Lawyers. He has been a Pennsylvania Super Lawyer every year since the program began and has been listed in The Best Lawyers in America every year since the publication was established in 1987. Best Lawyers also named him top personal injury attorney for Northeastern Pennsylvania and the Lehigh Valley. In addition, Best Lawyers, in conjunction with U.S. News & World Report, has designated HKQ a Tier 1 Best Law Firm across multiple categories in Northeastern Pennsylvania and the Lehigh Valley.

Since the inception of the firm, the Commercial / Corporate Team led by Attorney Allan Kluger has provided comprehensive, integrated legal services to many of Northeastern and Eastern Pennsylvania's largest corporations, businesses, banks, non-profits and institutions, handling matters involving labor and employment, wills, trusts and estate planning, estate administration, elder law, commercial transactions, residential and commercial real estate, zoning, land use and development, telecommunications, mediations and arbitrations, commercial litigation, title insurance, business planning and business succession, corporate/business structuring, employment discrimination law for employers, banking, creditor’s rights, finance, lender liability defense, covenants not to compete, construction law, mergers and acquisitions and other business matters.

Additional information can be found at or by calling (800) 760-1529.



As Hourigan, Kluger and Quinn addresses the concerns raised by COVID-19, the health and safety of our clients, employees and friends of the firm remain our top priority.

These are very difficult and scary times and we hope that you and your loved ones are safe and symptom free. We recognize that so many of you are understandably anxious about your health, the economic impact of this pandemic and all of the consequences of social isolation.

We also recognize that many of you are anxious about how the coronavirus is impacting the Court systems, our firm and your cases. Although all of our offices are closed, our firm has remained fully operational and we have initiated procedures that allow all of our attorneys and staff to work remotely from their homes. Each of us and our staff will respond to any emails and calls about your cases as quickly as possible.

Our Federal and State Courts have instituted significant changes in their calendars as a result of the coronavirus. Although most courthouses are closed to the public, and Hearings and Trials will be delayed for some time, there are matters that can proceed telephonically and by video. Despite these changes in the Court calendars, we are working diligently on your cases and are determined to do whatever we possibly can to assure an early and just recovery for you and your loved ones. Even under these difficult circumstances, we believe that "Nobody will work harder for you than we will."

With regard to new potential clients, we are not in a position to have an in-person new client meeting, but we will be conducting these initial meetings via phone. New potential clients should call us for a free telephone consultation at (570) 287-3000.


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