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HKQ Firm News


Along with high temperatures, summer often means aquatic adventures. While water can offer a refreshing break from the heat, HKQ Law Personal Injury Attorney Michelle Quinn cautions that “it can also be filled with danger”.

A week after playing in knee-deep water in the Texas City Dike during a family vacation, 4-year-old Frankie Delgado died. While in the water, a wave from a distant ship knocked him over and Frankie’s head went under water. After the incident, he appeared to be ok and “had fun the rest of the day” according to his father.

The next night, Frankie began to vomit and experience diarrhea. Frankie’s parents thought he just had a stomach bug. The symptoms persisted. Later in the week, Frankie woke at night complaining of shoulder pain. He later shot up from his bed again, this time taking his last breath.

Frankie was rushed to the hospital. But after medical staff spent over an hour trying to resuscitate him, he was pronounced dead. They found water in his lungs, which caused edema, (swelling). When the air passages in the lungs are filled with water, they are unable to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the blood. This causes blood oxygen levels to drop and the heart to slow, which could end in cardiac arrest.

The condition responsible for claiming Frankie’s life is known as “secondary drowning”. Another type of delayed drowning is “dry drowning”. With dry drowning, water never reaches the lungs. Instead, the larynx shuts as a protective response. No water gets in, but no air gets in either.  The laryngospasm deprives the body of oxygen. Even a few minutes of oxygen deprivation is fatal. People with heart defects and respiratory difficulties like asthma are at particular risk.

Secondary drowning and dry drowning have the same symptoms. They include:

  • coughing
  • chest pain
  • shortness of breath
  • lethargy
  • mood change

(The vomiting that Frankie experienced could have been caused by either irritation from the water or a bacterial infection.)

Symptoms of dry drowning usually happen right after any incident in the water. Secondary drowning generally starts later, within 1 to 24 hours of the incident.

Both types of drownings can occur in adults, but they are more common in children because of their small size. The drownings are rare (accounting for only 1-2% of all drowning incidents), but it is important that any child who has fallen into the water or experienced a near-drowning is taken to the emergency room immediately. Keep a close eye on your child for the first 24 hours after he or she has had any problems in the water. If there are symptoms of delayed drowning, take the child to the emergency room, not your pediatrician's office.

Parasitic Infections

Another potential risk from ingesting water at a pool or waterpark is a parasitic infection. Authorities are warning of an increase in outbreaks of such infections. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there were at least 32 outbreaks of cryptosporidium in the U.S. in 2016. This is double the number of outbreaks reported to the agency in 2014. An average of 8,000 people a year suffer through up to three weeks of watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting as a result of the illness.

"Crypto" as the parasite is often known, spreads when people swallow water that has come into contact with feces from an infected person. According to a CDC study, fecal matter is found in a distressingly high number of pools – at least half.

Crypto, which can survive up to 10 days, is not easily killed by normal levels of chlorine. So it's important to keep the parasite out of water in the first place.

To protect yourself and others from infection, the CDC encourages following these guidelines:

  • Don’t swallow swimming water, in pools or elsewhere
  • Don't swim or let your kids swim if sick with diarrhea
  • If you were ill due to crypto, wait two weeks after symptoms have stopped before swimming
  • Shower before swimming
  • Check and change diapers in a diaper-changing area, NOT right next to the pool
  • Give kids frequent bathroom breaks

The last tip is important in keeping kids from urinating in the pool. A recent study found EVERY pool tested contained urine. While it does not cause illness directly, urine depletes chlorine levels, giving germs a better chance to survive.

Chemical Dangers

Pathogens aren’t the only contaminants that cause recreational water illnesses. Recreational water illnesses can also be caused by chemicals in the water or chemicals that evaporate from the water and create indoor air quality problems.

Chlorine is the chemical most public and private pools rely on for disinfection, and it usually is effective and generally safe. However, excess chlorine levels in the pool can make the water toxic to humans. When people are exposed to swimming pool water which contains too much chlorine, they may experience some of the following side effects right away or soon after getting out of the pool:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • a burning sensation in the throat
  • bloody nose
  • eye irritation
  • coughing or wheezing
  • chest pain
  • shortness of breath
  • a burning or irritated feeling on the skin
  • buildup of fluid in the lungs

When chlorine binds to the body waste swimmers bring into pools (for example, perspiration, oils and urine) it forms chemicals called chloramines. Chloramines in the water, like dichloramine and trichloramine, can irritate skin, eyes, and the respiratory tract when they give off gas from the water and into the air above, particularly indoors. It is chloramines, not chlorine, that causes the familiar “pool smell”. A well-managed pool has no odor. By showering before entering the pool, swimmers can help reduce chloramines.

Chlorine gas can be especially dangerous. (The gas was used as a chemical weapon during World War I.) Equipment failure and human error can lead to the release of toxic chlorine gas at public pools and other water venues. In June 2015, one such release sickened 34 people at an outdoor public pool in California.

Symptoms of chlorine gas exposure include:

  • blurred vision
  • a burning sensation in the nose, throat and eyes
  • coughing; difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • fluid in the lungs
  • nausea and vomiting
  • watery eyes
  • wheezing

HKQ Law encourages you to have fun this summer. But please, be safe.

If you’ve suffered a serious injury as a result of someone else’s negligence, call the Personal Injury attorneys at HKQ Law at (570) 287-3000 for your free consultation.

About HKQ Law

Hourigan, Kluger & Quinn is considered one of the top civil litigation and commercial law firms that has had the privilege of representing more families in the courtroom than any other NEPA firm. The attorneys at HKQ Law have been honored as Super Lawyers, Best Lawyers, Best Law Firms by US News and World Report, and have received the AV Preeminent Rating by Martindale-Hubbel. HKQ Law was recently recognized for one of the top 20 Verdicts in Pennsylvania.

The firm’s Personal Injury Team, led by Attorney Joe Quinn, Jr., has won some of the largest verdicts and settlements in the region's history. The Personal Injury Team focuses on a wide array of personal injury claims and civil litigation, including medical malpractice, auto and truck accidents, aviation accidents, unsafe vehicles, dangerous or defective products, workplace injuries (worker's compensation), construction site accidents, claim denials by insurance companies, dangerous drugs, defective children's products, nursing home abuse and neglect, and falls due to unsafe conditions (slip and fall).

Attorney Joseph A Quinn, Jr. is one of only 100 attorneys in the United States (and one of only three in Pennsylvania) honored with membership in the Inner Circle of Trial Advocates, and one of only 500 attorneys worldwide chosen to be a Fellow of the International Academy of Trial Lawyers. He has been a Pennsylvania Super Lawyer every year since the program began and has been listed in The Best Lawyers in America every year since the publication was established in 1987. Best Lawyers also named him top personal injury attorney for Northeastern Pennsylvania and the Lehigh Valley. In addition, Best Lawyers, in conjunction with U.S. News & World Report, has designated HKQ a Tier 1 Best Law Firm across multiple categories in Northeastern Pennsylvania and the Lehigh Valley.

Since the inception of the firm, the Commercial / Corporate Team led by Attorney Allan Kluger has provided comprehensive, integrated legal services to many of Northeastern and Eastern Pennsylvania's largest corporations, businesses, banks, non-profits and institutions, handling matters involving labor and employment, wills, trusts and estate planning, estate administration, elder law, commercial transactions, residential and commercial real estate, zoning, land use and development, telecommunications, mediations and arbitrations, commercial litigation, title insurance, business planning and business succession, corporate/business structuring, employment discrimination law for employers, banking, creditor’s rights, finance, lender liability defense, covenants not to compete, construction law, mergers and acquisitions and other business matters.

Additional information can be found at or by calling (800) 760-1529.



As Hourigan, Kluger and Quinn addresses the concerns raised by COVID-19, the health and safety of our clients, employees and friends of the firm remain our top priority.

These are very difficult and scary times and we hope that you and your loved ones are safe and symptom free. We recognize that so many of you are understandably anxious about your health, the economic impact of this pandemic and all of the consequences of social isolation.

We also recognize that many of you are anxious about how the coronavirus is impacting the Court systems, our firm and your cases. Although all of our offices are closed, our firm has remained fully operational and we have initiated procedures that allow all of our attorneys and staff to work remotely from their homes. Each of us and our staff will respond to any emails and calls about your cases as quickly as possible.

Our Federal and State Courts have instituted significant changes in their calendars as a result of the coronavirus. Although most courthouses are closed to the public, and Hearings and Trials will be delayed for some time, there are matters that can proceed telephonically and by video. Despite these changes in the Court calendars, we are working diligently on your cases and are determined to do whatever we possibly can to assure an early and just recovery for you and your loved ones. Even under these difficult circumstances, we believe that "Nobody will work harder for you than we will."

With regard to new potential clients, we are not in a position to have an in-person new client meeting, but we will be conducting these initial meetings via phone. New potential clients should call us for a free telephone consultation at (570) 287-3000.


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